Yaroslavl is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at 57°37'N, 39°51'E. The historical part of the city, a World Heritage Site, is located at the confluence of the Volga and the Kotorosl Rivers. As of the 2002 Census, its population was 613,088.
Yaroslavl lies at the intersection of several major highways, railways, and waterways. Preceded by Viking sites such as Timerevo from the 8th or 9th centuries, the city is said to have been founded in 1010 as an outpost of the Principality of Rostov Veliky, and was first mentioned in 1071. Capital of an independent principality from 1218, it was incorporated into Muscovy in 1463. In the 17th century it was Russia's second largest city, and for a time (during the Polish occupation of Moscow in 1612), the country's de facto capital. Today, Yaroslavl is an important industrial center (petrochemical plant, tire manufacturing plant, diesel engines plant and many others).
Apart from the Spaso-Preobrazhensky (Transfiguration of the Saviour) Monastery the oldest churches in the city date back to the 17th century and belong to the so called Yaroslavl type (built of red brick, with bright tiled exteriors). Those of St. Nicholas Nadein and Elijah the Prophet have some of the Golden ring's most impressive frescoes.
Yaroslavl has many institutions for higher education including: Demidov University, Polytechnical University, Ushinskiy Pedagogical University, Medical Academy, International University for Business and New Technologies (MUBINT).
Military institutions include the High Military Financial School and the High Anti-aircraft Missile School.
The city has a well-developed network of public transportation including buses, trolley-buses and tram lines. It is home to the Tunoshna airport, which was a former Cold War airbase, and the Yaroslavl Levtsovo air base.
There is one railway bridge across the Volga and two road bridges; the second road bridge across the Volga was ready for use in October 2006.
There are two major passenger railway stations: Yaroslavl-Glavny and Yaroslavl-Moskovsky. Electric shuttle trains go to Danilov, Rostov, Alexandrov, Nerekhta, and Kostroma. Diesel shuttle trains go to Rybinsk and Ivanovo. Also many long-distance passenger trains go through Yaroslavl.
Yaroslavl is the site of the Volkov Theater (built 1750), the oldest theater in Russia.
Temples: the city has many Russian Orthodox churches, one Russian Old Believers church, one Baptist church, one Lutheran church, one mosque and one synagogue.
FC Shinnik Yaroslavl is a soccer club based in Yaroslavl. It plays in the Russian Premier League. The city also hosts the Lokomotiv Yaroslavl ice hockey team which became the champion of Russia in 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003.